A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter. Nanorobots have potential applications in the assembly and maintenance of sophisticated systems. Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication. Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. This has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. It has been suggested that a fleet of nanorobots might serve as antibodies or antiviral agents in patients with compromised immune systems, or in diseases that do not respond to more conventional measures. There are numerous other potential medical applications, including repair of damaged tissue, unblocking of arteries affected by plaques, and perhaps the construction of complete replacement body organs.
Most historians credit the concept of nanotechnology to physicist Richard Feynman and his 1959 speech, “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” In his speech, Feynman imagined a day when machines could be miniaturized and huge amounts of information could be encoded in minuscule spaces, paving the way for disruptive technological developments. But it was K. Eric Drexler’s 1986 book, ‘Engines of Creation: the Coming Era of Nanotechnology’, which really put the idea on the map. Drexler posited the idea of self-replicating nanomachines: machines that build other machines. Because these machines are also programmable, they can then be directed to build not only more of themselves, but also more of whatever else you’d like. Drexler painted the picture of a world where the entire Library of Congress could fit on a chip the size of a sugar cube and where environmental scrubbers could clear pollutants from the air.
Introduction of nanorobots into the human body has been proposed through the circulatory system which has two considerations. The first is that the size of the nanomachine determines the minimum size of the blood vessel that it can traverse. Not only do we want to avoid damaging the walls of whatever blood vessel the device is in, we also do not want to block it too much, which would either cause a clot to form, or just slow or stop the blood flow, precipitating the problem we want to cure in the first place. What this means, of course, is that the smaller the nanomachine the better. The second consideration is an even simpler one; we have to get it into the body without being too destructive in the first place. This requires that we gain access to a large diameter artery that can be traversed easily to gain access to most areas of the body in minimal time.
There are a number of means available for active propulsion of our device through the circulatory system- a) Propeller, b) Cilia, c) Electromagnetic pump, d) Jet pump, e) Membrane propulsion, f) Crawl along surface. There are various technologies to observe the movement of nanorobots- a) Ultrasonic, b) Nuclear magnetic resonance, c) Radioactive Dye, d) X-ray, e) Radio/Microwave/Heat. To control the movement we can use chemical, Spectroscopic method, UHF sonar for resolution and texture.
Some of the most exciting applications of nanorobots in my eyes are- a) Cancer Treatment, b) Drug Delivery Mechanisms, c) Medical Imaging, d) New Sensing Devices, e) Information Storage Devices, f) New Energy Systems, g) Super-strong Metamaterials, h) Smart Windows and Walls, i) Ocean-cleaning Microsponges, j) Replicators Health, k) Sensors, l) Connecting Our Brains to the Internet. But the most important application can be remove blood clot by nanorobots.
Nanorobot is the most advance technology of modern science. Although scientists yet have to develop this technology a lot, buts they believe that they will be able to successfully implement this technology within 2030. We can say that, future medical technology will be highly dependent on nanomedical technology and this future is not so far away!
Muhammedullah Rumi is a student of Department of Pharmacy, East West University, Bangladesh. He can be reached at email@example.com
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