Medicinal science is developing day by day. With the development of science old strategies of using medicine is changing. Patients want comfortable administration of drugs, easy and relief from disease. For this medicinal scientist were looking for better drug delivery system and Nanomedicine drug delivery system has become an era in this field.
Nanomedicines are also called nanotherapeutics and are versatile carrier because of their unique features of interactions with target receptors. Nanomedicine drug delivery system is a process of diagnosis, treating and preventing disease, turmeric injury, relieving pain and improving human health at molecular level using molecular tools and knowledge.
By using various nanoscales structured materials and nanodevices many important medical problems can be addressed. This drug delivery includes nanocolloidal drug carriers classified as lipid-based and polymeric nanocarriers. Lipid based nanocarriers are further subdivided into vascular nanosystems, particulate and emulsion based nanocarriers. Liposomes are extensively studied lipid based nanocarriers. Liposomes are bilayer vascular carriers composed of phospholipid, cholesterol and stabilizer; can encapsulate both Hydrophilic drugs in aqueous core and Lipophilic drug in respectively.
Nanomedicine drug delivery increases the localization of therapeutic compounds, imaging agents, radio sensitizers, and small molecule therapeutics and gene medicines. For example, use of siRNA to target tissues such as site of infection, inflammation and solid tumors. It is done through a passive targeting mechanism called the enhanced permeability and retention effect.
Modern medicine has implemented a lot of Nanomedicine for treating and curing the diseases. Drugs are either integrated in the particle matrix or attached on the surface of the particle to deliver in the specific cells or targets and give maximum bioavailability.
The soft vesicular nanocarriers, Ethosomes are composed of ethanol phospholipid and stabilizers. High percentage of ethanol helps penetration in the stratum corneum that is an aid in the treatment of psoriasis. By the activation of phospholipase A2 Eicosanoids are derived from arachidonic acid. It causes vasodilatation, edema and exerts chemotactic movement on leukocytes which acts as growth factors for hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. To treat psoriasis, researchers have delivered therapeutics encapsulation of drug in the nanocarriers. Betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic-acid-loaded microemulsion for topical application of psoriasis has reported 72.1% reduction in inflammatory response. The increased therapeutic action is gained by the enhancement of drug penetration through the skin by the nanocarriers containing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, surfactant and cosurfactant.
Nanomedicines for parenteral application include Liposomes and other lipid-based carriers as micelles, lipid emulsion and lipid drug complex and various ligand targeted product as immune conjugates.
For the treatment of cancer several Nanomedicine drug deliveries have been developed, most interesting systems are nanococktail and nanorobotics. Nanococktail is defined as a “cocktail” of different nanometer-sized particles that work within the bloodstream to locate, adhere to and kill cancerous tumors. Two different nanomaterials the size of only a few nanometers contains a nanococktail. One nanomaterial was designed to find and adhere to tumors and the second nanomaterial was fabricated to kill those tumors.
Responder particle Nanoworms contains nanoparticles with strings of iron oxides have showed up brightly in magnetic resonance imaging. They would be useful to identify the size and shape of a tumor in a patient before surgery. The second type is hollow nanoparticles loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin and might be used to kill the tumor without the need for surgery.
Nanorobotics in medicine includes early diagnosis and targeted drug-delivery for cancer biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics monitoring of diabetes and health care. Targeted drug delivery with lesser side effects and improved bioavailability is the important features of nanorobotics. Cream containing nanorobots removes right amount of dead skin and excess oil that can be used to cure skin diseases.
Nanomedicine drug delivery system has brought a revolutionary change in the application of medicine to treat many diseases and has become life saving magic. Though they are expensive than the conventional therapies of drug, that day is so close to us when we will able to use it for every life threatening diseases.
Farzana Khan Sristy is a pharmacy student, completing her graduation under the department of Pharmacy, East West University. She has interest on recent development of treatment methods and drugs. She is doing her research on Phytochemical activities. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
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