In the 21st century, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) along with the communicable diseases (CDs) are now considered as the reason of severe health problems globally, more predominantly in third world countries like Bangladesh. This double burden of disease places an incredible toll on health and economy of people and general population of Bangladesh. Though very low level of economic development has achieved in Bangladesh but has accomplished remarkable changes in health sectors in the last 40 years. However, the continuance of socioeconomic status (SES) inequities is still interrupting the progression in public health. The epidemiologic transition is occurring from CDs to NCDs in which NCDs are predominant. The poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs and this difference has established only because of SES inequities. Globalization, improper urbanization and ecological and way of life elements on a foundation of overpopulation have been contributing altogether.
Infectious disease is a type of disorders that can be communicated from one person to another and this transmission occurs due to some kind of contact including eating, drinking, touching, or breathing which contains pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. Even pathogens responsible for infections can also be disseminated through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Stephen Morse of Columbia University & Mark Woolhouse and Eleanor Gaunt of the University of Edinburgh have estimated that approximately 1,400 pathogens capable of infecting humans, among them 500 are capable of human-to-human transmission, of which around 150 have the ability to cause an epidemic or endemic disease. Professor Kristi Koenig and Professor Carl Schultz of the University of California at Irvine, USA have described that pathogens have been associated with infectious diseases for thousands of years. Smallpox, cholera, malaria, plague, tuberculosis, and syphilis are the examples of infectious diseases that have come with long outbreak history resulting millions of deaths over the world.
On the other hand, NCDs also known as category of chronic diseases those are not moved from person to person but develop in a patient body due to some reasons, some may be under control, and some are not within patient control. Let’s look some statistical data regarding NCDs; World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that NCDs including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease, are collectively responsible for almost 70% of all deaths worldwide. Right around seventy-five percent of all NCDs and 82% of the 16 million individuals who died prematurely, or before achieving 70 years old, happen in low- and center pays nations. Tobacco uses, physical inactivity, excessive use of alcohol, unhealthy diet are the major risk factors for most of the premature deaths. In a study report has estimated that the most recurrent starting points of death including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and cancers the main key risk factors were increased blood pressure (responsible for 13% of deaths globally), tobacco use (9%), elevated blood glucose levels (6%), physical inactivity (6%), and overweight and obesity (5%). About 95% NCDs are only because of lifestyle choices.
The prevalence of infectious diseases is still very high, especially in young children, even though the fact that the greater part of the fundamental devices and learning about their anticipation, treatment and control are accessible. Those devices are both powerful and reasonable, yet they don’t reach the individuals who require those. However, NCDs are expanding and will keep on doing so. Let’s take a look at another study performing in Bangladesh; 37% of the deaths caused by NCDs considered as the leading causes, followed by CDs which are responsible for 22% of the deaths. Age-particular mortality exhibited untimely birth, respiratory diseases, and suffocating were the predominant reasons for death for youth mortality (0-14 years), which was contrarily connected with SES. For grown-up and the elderly (15 years and more established), NCDs were the main source of death (51%), trailed by CDs (23%). For grown-up and the elderly, NCDs prevalent among the populace from higher SES gatherings and CDs among the lower SES bunch.
Now, what should do for reducing mortality regarding these double burdened diseases? As infectious and NCD’s are connected to different modifiable hazard variables which are blended with people groups’ everyday way of life incorporate tobacco utilize, liquor mishandle, undesirable eating regimen, physical inertia, obesity, raised blood pressure and blood glucose, abnormal blood lipid, natural cancer-causing agents etc. So, the approach should be taken to grasp a powerful counteractive action program by enhancing attention to individuals about a perfect and healthy lifestyle. Indeed, even policymakers need to consider the social scattering of sicknesses before working up any general wellbeing activity concentrated on towards lessening mortality and the level of double burden in a fair way.
Md. Delowar Hossain is a Student & Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UTA) at Department of Pharmacy in East West University, Bangladesh. He can be reached at email@example.com
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