Antibiotics and its Resistance Crisis: “Ultimate Goal of Death”

Sifat-Sharmin-Shiba

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) within a wide range of infectious agents is a growing public health threat of broad concern to countries and multiple sectors.Antibiotics have been transformed into medicine and saved millions of lives in last century. Butin recent years the vast emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide and it’s endangering the efficacy of antibiotics. From many decades it has been used to treat the bacterial infection diseases. We know Antibiotics are those antibacterial, which are a types of medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections, can save lives when it used properly. Antibiotics either stop bacteria from reproducing or kill them.But these lifesaving antibiotics become the most terrible threat when its resistance occurs tremendously.Very high rates of resistance have been observed in bacteria that cause common health-care associated and community-acquired infections (e.g. urinary tract infection, pneumonia) in all over the world.Antibiotic resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. A post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can kill, far from being an apocalyptic fantasy, is instead a very real possibility for the 21st century.

It is the abilities of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive. Antibiotic resistance is a major concern of overuse of antibiotics which also known as drug resistance.Usually antibiotics are used to treat in bacterial infections,but many of us are using antibiotics to treat viral illness (like-common cold,flu,asthma, sore throats) without any prescribed medication or professional healthcare system,which is one of the main reasons of resistance.It happens when bacteria evolve and become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat the infection they cause.Some of the major reason of antibiotic resistance crisis can be discussed below-

According to NCBI, in many developing countries (example-Bangladesh) antibiotics are unregulated and widely available over the counter without any prescription. This lack of regulation results in antibiotics that are easily accessible, plentiful, and cheap, which promotes overuse of drugs and also resistant as well.

Inappropriate antibiotic use can refer to two types of antibiotic misuse:when an antibiotic is prescribed,but not needed or when it needed the wrong antibiotic,dose or duration is chosen.Most common things happens that-patients are not finishing their antibiotic course according to their treatment and medication, for this reason bacteria can easily change their position and make e resistance wall against the prescribed antibiotic.One example can be given from a blog- Third generation cephalosporin was a sound drug (especially round shaped bacterial drug). This remedy and last hope of gonorrheal infection now no longer provide us reliance against these types of diseases. Cephalosporin preventive bacteria has spread throughout the world and now daily at least one million people are infected by gonorrhea. (http://www.sachalayatan.com/anarjo_sangeet/52317). So,do you think how deadly threat it will be in future?

According to NRDC Most of the Livestock producers are given antibiotics to animals to make them grow faster or help them survive crowded, stressful and various unsanitary conditions. When these drugs are over used,by humans or animals,some bacteria become antibiotic-resistant, threatening the future effectiveness of these medicines.

Besides that,Poor infection control in hospitals and clinics, lack of hygiene and poor sanitation, Regulatory Barriers and lack of new antibiotics being developed also can be the reason of antibiotic resistance which are going to increase day by day.

Since it has now become a life threading situation so we all should prevent this condition as early as possible.The most prior step now is to stop taking antibiotics in viral infections.According to WHO- Doctors, Nurses Veterinarians and other healthworker shouldn’t prescribe or dispense any kind of antibiotics unless they are truly necessary and you have made all efforts to test and confirm which antibiotic your human patient or the animal you are treating should have. And also should take proper chosen antibiotic with exact dose and duration of time.Make sure that – Antibiotics which are given to animals are used only to control or treat infectious diseases and under veterinary supervision. Misuse of antibiotics in livestock, aquaculture and crops is a key factor contributing to antibiotic resistance and its spread into the environment, food chain and humans. Neat and clean conditions and regular vaccination of animals can curtail the needed of antibiotics.Many development organizations,Govt. and Non-Govt. industry altogether can also help to take proper step to prevent this crisis.

Last but not least we cannot prevent antibiotic resistance crisis completely because, now this condition isn’t in our control but we can counteract against it to get rid of the-ultimate goal of death.

Sifat Sharmin Shiba is an undergrad student in Department of Pharmacy East West University, Bangladesh. She can be reached at sifatshiba2015@gmail.com

 

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