Antibiotic Resistance: A Major Challenge for Human Survival

Md. Delowar Hossain

In the era of World War II, a miracle was seen to save millions of lives and that was the discovery of penicillin considered as the first chemical compound having antibiotic properties. Sir, Alexander Fleming was the man who discovered this serendipitous history. Actually, the term “antibiotic” describes the activity of any compound or chemical that can be applied to kill or inhibit bacteria that cause infectious diseases. Also, it is to be specified that antibiotic is not successful against the virus. These days, an expansive number of antibacterial agents are accessible to treat numerous life-undermining bacterial illnesses (e.g. tuberculosis, typhoid, syphilis, tetanus, diphtheria, gonorrhea, etc.) even so many antibiotics are under research to develop. Generally, a wide range of microbes are available in nature and in charge of various sorts of illnesses and every bacterial strain may not sensitive to a single antibiotic. As a result, there are present different classes of antibiotic (e.g.: cephalosporins, tetracyclines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides) to cover a wide range of the bacterial spectrum.

Though antibiotic was the revolutionized medicine during the last half of the 20th century and had reduced the incidence of life-threatening infections. However, the success of antibiotics has been eroded through the development of “superbugs” that means bacteria has become resistant to antibiotic drugs or antibiotic resistance which makes a challenge for the human survival. “Superbugs” are developed when bacteria is mutated then they reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of a drug. In the event that once the microscopic organisms can survive and proceed with, it will duplicate bringing on more damage. Both globally as well as locally in Bangladesh “superbugs” are a mounting threat to control the infectious diseases. These may show resistance not only to the single drug rather multiple drugs and that is considered as the multidrug resistant. And in the history of 1953 Shigella outbreaks in Japan, a strain of the “Dysentery bacillus” was isolated exhibiting resistance to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfanilamide. And in the late 1980s even Methicillin-resistant “Staphylococcus aureus” had become prevalent in many hospitals and difficult to treat. Actually, superbugs are developed naturally over time through genetic mutations. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials are accelerating this process. Abuse that implies anti-infection agents are gotten by a patient which is not in regards to the real reason of the disease. For example, antibiotic is taken for viral infections like colds and flu. Again, an incomplete total therapeutic dose of antibiotic, incorrect use of antibiotics such as too short a time, at too low a dose, the wrong diagnosis always enhances bacterial resistance to these drugs. Indeed, even numerous patients trust that new and costly medications are more efficacious than more seasoned agents. This observation supports the predominance of imperviousness to these more up to date operators and to more seasoned operators in their class. What’s more, the most vital thing is resistant strains that can be spread from a person to a community. Antibiotic resistance rates vary from one country to another. It is observed that nations having most elevated people get anti-infection have the most elevated resistance rates. This resistance rates rely on upon the measure of anti-microbial utilized, the number of people receiving the medication and the population density. How about we investigate some review, around the world, it is evaluated that more than half of patients receive antibiotics without clear signs where infants and children are among the most powerless populace gathers as antimicrobials have turned into a regular practice for the pediatric patients. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA has estimated that 50 millions of 150 millions prescriptions in every year are unnecessary.

In Bangladesh, it is evaluated that 50% common reasons to recommend antimicrobial are fever, respiratory and urinary tract disease and microbial affectability designs for them are not routinely honed for decision making in medication determination. About 70% prescriber mentioned that diagnostic uncertainty and emergence of resistance increase the antibiotic prescribing. 51.9% of prescribers opined that doctors prescribe antimicrobial more than the real need. And it is very unfortunate that over prescribing not only increases the health care cost, and may result in superinfection due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as well as fungi, and may increase the adverse drug reaction.

Now, what should do for slowing down the antibiotic resistance? In the first place, the prescriber ought to take after the fundamental standards of antimicrobial endorsing, patient ought to be adhered to their antibiotic treatment protocol and finish in time, even it should be entirely kept up that antimicrobials must not be recommended and administered without individual enrolled staff. Especially, in Bangladesh, a national alliance or regulation for the use of antimicrobials should be established for the prevention and containment of antimicrobial resistance.

Md. Delowar Hossain is a student of Department of Pharmacy at East West University, Bangladesh. He is a student correspondent at ALSEW. He can be reached at dhdipu030@gmail.com

 

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